Monday, April 16, 2012

Irish Gloss on Matthew 27:26

The Arrest of Christ from the
Book of Kells
In early Irish law your status and wealth established your “honor price”. This set the amount of compensation you were entitled to if someone did you wrong. In Roman law, all citizens were equal before the law, but in ancient Ireland this was not so. Your standing before the law depended on your status. Kings and bishops enjoyed the highest honor price.

One segment of Irish society that had no honor price was the ‘cimbid’. A cimbid was a prisoner who had committed a crime worthy of death. They were usually kept bound until they were handed over to be killed by the party whom they had offended. People could do what they wanted to a captive cimbid without any legal consequences. There was no honor price to pay for a cimbid. A cimbid was both a social pariah and an object of wrath. According to the early Irish law tract Críth Gablach, a cimbid was to executed “cen aurlúd , that is, without a pricking of the conscience. 

Early medieval Irish scribes looked for Irish parallels to important words or expressions they found in the Scriptures. They would gloss their Latin bibles with Irish words to help bring out the meaning of the text in a way that resonated for them. For example in Romans 9.3 where Paul mentions being “accursed and cut off”, an Irish scribe wrote under these words, ‘a cimbid’. Our scribe could think of no better way to explain someone accursed and cut off than the cimbid, a man with no honor price.

Another Irish scribe read in Matthew 27.26, “then [Pilate] released for them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, delivered him to be crucified” then he noted in the margin of his Bible, “dilse cimbetho”  i.e. the penalty of a cimbid (Turin MS, Bibl. Naz. F vi 2) To a medieval Irish Christian that must have been hard to read. The death of a cimbid was not heroic, it was humiliating. To see Christ as willing to suffer the death of a cimbid was to marvel at the awe-inspiring love and humility of God. Not only was Christ leaving aside the honor price that was His due from all those who had sinned against him (cf. Phil 2.1-11), but He voluntarily died in the place of the real cimbid, fallen man. As an ancient Irish commentary describes it, “His reproach has removed our disgrace. His bonds have set us free. By the crown of thorns on His head we have gained the diadem of the kingdom.”

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Oriental Influences in the Early Irish Church

Ballycotton Brooch, 8th cent.

Back in 1875 in Ballycotton in Co. Cork, Ireland, a silver brooch was unearthed from a bog. It was dated to the eighth century AD. It was clearly a Christian cross, but what was strange about it was the inscription in the center. It was in Arabic and contained the word Allah. The rest of the inscription is unclear, it is thought either to read, "we have repented to God" or "If God wills". Either way, it is striking to consider the possibility of Arabic speaking Christians in Ireland at this time.

The evidence for oriental Christians in Ireland is fragmentary but there are several fascinating mentions of Egyptian and even Armenian Christians in Ireland from around the same time as the Ballycotton brooch.

In an early Irish litany attributed to Óengus of Tallaght (fl. 800) there is mention of seven Egyptian monks (manchaib Egipt)
buried in Uilaigh, Co. Antrim. The discovery in 2006 of an Egyptian style book binding (with papyrus lining) with the Faddan More psalter in a Tipperary bog has given support to the theory of Egyptian Christians in Ireland around the year 800.
Litany of Óengus mentioning Egyptian Monks in Ireland
Literary sources in the early Irish church do make occasional reference to the Egyptian Church. The famous Stowe Missal (c.750) invokes the Egyptian desert Father Anthony and the other hermits of the Scetis valley in Egypt (Antoni et ceterorum partum heremi Sciti). But there is nothing unusual in this per se, as the fame of St. Anthony was widespread in the west through the Latin translation of Athanasius' 'Life of Anthony' and the writings of John Cassian. More unusual is the curious account of the origin of the Irish liturgy. There is preserved in a manuscript in the British library (Nero A II), an account written in the eighth century claiming to trace the different origins for the Gallic, Roman, Oriental and Irish liturgies. The manuscript claims that the Irish liturgy was derived from the liturgy used in Egypt. The account is certainly an embellishment of an early tradition relating to Ireland and Egypt but as Warren has noted it still may preserve "a solid foundation" for such a link.

The arrival of Christians from Ummayad Spain or Egypt does open up some interesting questions relating to the character and theology of the early Irish church. Telepneff has suggested that certain Irish ascetic practices once thought to be exclusively Irish can actually be traced back to Egyptian sources. One example is the so called crux-vigilia. This ascetic practice involved praying for hours on end with your arms extended in the form of a cross. Verkerk mistakenly asserted that the cross vigil was exclusive to Irish monasticism, but as Telepneff has correctly shown the practice was followed by Egyptian monks like Pachomios as early as the fourth century. 

Flabellum as depicted
in the Book of Kells
Another oriental influence in the Irish church can be seen in the use of flabella, which were long hand held fans used in the liturgy of eastern churches to keep flies off the eucharist. The use of these fans in Ireland is attested in both liturgical texts and also in the Book of Kells, which contains several depictions of angels holding flabellum. These fans are still used in the Coptic Church in Egypt today.

Discoveries like the Ballycotton brooch and the papyrus fragments in the Faddan More psalter have highlighted the role that oriental Christians, like the Copts, once played in the development of the early Irish church.

Sunday, April 8, 2012

Quem queritis ad sepulcrum?

Some Easter reflections from the famous Irish prayer known as the Faeth Fiada dating from the eighth century.

Atomriug indiu
niurt gene Críst cona bathius
niurt a chrochtho cona adnacul
niurt a essérgi cona fhresgabaáil
niurt a thoíniudo fri brithemnas mbrátho.

Domini est Salus
Christi est Salus
Sulas tua, Domine, sit semper nobiscum!

Today I gird myself
with the power of Christ's birth together with His baptism
with the power of His crucifixion together with His burial
with the power of His Resurrection together with His ascension,
with the power of His descent to pronounce the judgement of the Day of Doom

Salvation is of the Lord
Salvation is of Christ
May your salvation, Lord, be with us always!